研究了4,938,362 mutations from 7,042 cancers样本，突变频谱的概念只是针对于somatic 的mutation。一般是对癌症病人的肿瘤组织和癌旁组织配对测序，过滤得到的somatic mutation，一般一个样本也就几百个somatic 的mutation。
Each signature is displayed according to the 96 substitution classification defined by the substitution class and sequence context immediately 3′ and 5′ to the mutated base. The probability bars for the six types of substitutions are displayed in different colours.
In principle, all classes of mutation (such as substitutions, indels, rearrangements) and any accessory mutation characteristic, for example, the sequence context of the mutation or the transcriptional strand on which it occurs, can be incorporated into the set of features by which a mutational signature is defined. In the first instance, we extracted mutational signatures using base substitutions and additionally included information on the sequence context of each mutation. Because there are six classes of base substitution—C>A, C>G, C>T, T>A, T>C, T>G (all substitutions are referred to by the pyrimidine of the mutated Watson–Crick base pair)—and as we incorporated information on the bases immediately 5′ and 3′ to each mutated base, there are 96 possible mutations in this classification. This 96 substitution classification is particularly useful for distinguishing mutational signatures that cause the same substitutions but in different sequence contexts.
In most cancer classes at least two mutational signatures were observed, with a maximum of six in cancers of the liver, uterus and stomach. Although these differences may, in part, be attributable to differences in the power to extract signatures, it seems likely that some cancers have a more complex repertoire of mutational processes than others.
Most individual cancer genomes exhibit more than one mutational signature and many different combinations of signatures were observed
The set of signatures will be updated in the future. This will include incorporating additional mutation types (e.g., indels, structural rearrangements, and localized hypermutation such as kataegis) and cancer samples. With more cancer genome sequences and the additional statistical power this will bring, new signatures may be found, the profiles of current signatures may be further refined, signatures may split into component signatures and signatures may be found in cancer types in which they are currently not detected.